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Articles

Below you will find articles by rabbis, doctors and scholars about the halachic and medical issues surrounding brain-stem death and organ donation. Some articles are pro organ donation and some are con. We believe by showing all positions, we can allow the public to judge for themselves where they stand on these issues.

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Articles

361 entries found.

1.Brain Death Controversy in Jewish Law, The
Download: English
Author: Breitowitz, Rabbi Yitzchak
Publication: Jewish Action
Year: 1992, Spring 5752
HOD Comment: A clear overview and input from R. Tendler
2.Brain Death I: A Status Report of Medical and Ethical Considerations
Download: English
Author: Veith, Frank, MD; Jack Fein MD; Moses Tendler PhD; Robert Veatch PhD; Marc Kleiman JD, LLM; George Kalkines JD
Publication: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Year: October 10, 1977
HOD Comment: Arguing that brain death is a superior indicator of death, this team of rabbis, doctors, and ethicists published their work more than 30 years ago. Visualizing lack of blood flow to the brain and lack of brain activity over a short period of time, allows doctors to determine unequivocally that a patient has died even if they are being supported by mechanical means. The second section provides philosophical arguments from several religious traditions for the recognition of brain death as a legitimate indicator of death. Of particular note are Rav Moshe Feinstein's words, “there is no religious imperative to continue to use a respirator to inflate and deflate the lungs and thus maintain the cellular viability of other organs in an otherwise dead patient.” These arguments are presented first and foremost for their own sake though the authors acknowledge that they have important bearing on the decisions to allow organ donation.
3.Praying for a Brain-Dead Person is Forbidden
Download: English Hebrew
Author: HaCohen, Rabbi Re'em
Publication: Mashut B'Aretz
Year: 2011
HOD Comment: Even if you think brain death is not death, since no one has ever recovered from it is a tefilah leshav
4.Rav Moshe Sternbuch's Position
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg, Rabbi Dr. Avraham and Rabbi Moshe Peleg
Publication: ASSIA
Year: 2010
HOD Comment: Rabbi Moshe Sternbuch stated that he accepts brain-stem death as halachic death to many people (see article) in private and also in public, such as at a Yarchei Kallah event, in the presence of Rabbi Yaakov Weiner. That was at the Eleventh Annual Jerusalem Yarchei Kallah event: Medicine and Halacha, at Boys Town, in Bayit Vegan, Jerusalem, Israel, held between August 12 - 18, 2009. During the session entitled: "Question and Answer Session (Rav Moshe Sternbuch, Rav Yaakov Weiner)
5.Rav Moshe Feinstein on Heart Transplants
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Feinstein, Rav Moshe
Publication: Igrot Moshe - Choshen Mishpat: Siman 72
Year: 1978
6.Brain Death II: A Status Report of Legal Considerations
Download: English
Author: Veith, Frank, MD; Jack Fein MD; Moses Tendler PhD; Robert Veatch PhD; Marc Kleiman JD, LLM; George Kalkines JD
Publication: Journal of the American Medical Association
Year: Otcober 17, 1977
HOD Comment: The second of this two-part article provides legal arguments for the recognition of brain death as legally legitimate in accordance with medical understanding at the time. There is also a helpful overview of relevant case and state law at the time. The article concludes with a call for nationwide legal recognition of a brain death standard and its importance in protecting those called upon to make these decisions.
7.Halakhic Death Means Brain Death
Download: English
Author: Tendler, Rabbi Moshe David
Publication: Jewish Review
Year: 1990, January-February
8.RCA Health Care Proxy, The
Download: English
Author: Angel, Rabbi Marc D.
Publication: Jewish Action
Year: 1992, Spring 5752
9.A Matter of Life and Death
Download: English
Author: Zwiebel, Chaim Dovid
Publication: Jewish Observer, The
Year: 1991, Summer
10.A Matter of Life and Death — Revisited
Download: English
Author: Unknown
Publication: Jewish Observer, The
Year: 1991, October
11.Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach and Rabbi Shlomo Elyashiv on Brain-Stem Death
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Auerbach, Rav Shlomo Zalman; Elyashiv, Rav Shlomo
Publication: Yated Ne'eman
Year: 1991
Publisher: Yated Neeman
HOD Comment: It seems this ruling was published twice, a year apart, with slight - yet important - changes. (The original ruling is attached as English document and the latter one as Hebrew document.) It has been said that the second ruling was issued due to the results of the sheep experiment. Rabbi Dr. Avraham Steinberg explains the difference of opinions between Rav Auerbach and Rav Elyashiv even though they jointly published this ruling, “While Rav Auerbach agreed with R. Eliashiv that at the time one can't obtain organs from a brain-dead person, their reasoning was different. According to Rav Eliashiv the brain-stem dead person is alive because his heart is still pumping, while according to Rav Auerbach the reason was that such a person is "safek met safek gosses" (it is unknown if the person is dead or in the process of dying). This is a significant difference since in that if a validated test can be done that will assure the total destruction of the brain and on the other hand will not interfere with laws of gosses, then according to Rav Auerbach organs can be taken even if the heart is still functioning. My summary (ASSIA #53-54, p.13) of Rav Auerbach’s opinion was very carefully reviewed by him before publication, and he subsequently conveyed to Rabbi Mordechai Halperin that of all the documentation concerning his opinion it is this summary that most accurately describes his position in totality."
12.Monetary Compensation for Donating Kidneys
Download: English
Author: Grazi MD, Richard; Wolowelsky PhD, Joel
Publication: IMAJ
Year: 2004
HOD Comment: Arguments why Jewish law supports the legalization of purchasing and selling kidneys.
13.Opinion of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin, Rabbi Mordechai; Rappaport, Rabbi Shabtai, Levenstien, Rabbi Yisrael
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, page 137-146
Year: 1993
14.Letter from R. Feinstein on Brain-stem Death Legislation
Download: English
Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Moshe
Publication: Letter to Assemblyman Miller
Year:
15.Letter from R. Auerbach on Gosses
Download: English
Author: Auerbach, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman
Publication: Jewish Medical Ethics, Vol. II, No. 2
Year: May 1995
16.Rabbi Moshe Feinstein on the Treatment of the Terminally Ill.
Download: English
Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Moshe as per ?
Publication: The 2nd International Colloquium of Medicine, Ethics and Halacha
Year: 1996
17.Determining Death - A Review of Positions
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg, Rabbi Dr. Avraham
Publication: ASSIA
Year: 1994
HOD Comment: According to Rabbi Doctor Avraham Steinberg, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach approved of each word in this article that Rabbi Steinberg wrote describing Rabbi Auerbach's position.
18.Medical Responsa
Download: English
Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Moshe
Publication: Cross Roads: Halacha and the Modern World; Page 129
Year: Unknown
19.Establishing Death, Signs of Death, Heart Transplants
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Moshe
Publication: Igrot Moshe Yoreh Deah, Vol. III, 132
Year: Over Many Years
20.Rav Moshe Feinstein's Position on Death and Organ Donation.pdf
Download: English
Author: Tendler, Rabbi Moshe
Publication:
Year:
21.Letter to Dr. Elliot Bondi by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Feinstein, R. Moshe
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, page 148 -148(a)
Year: 1993
HOD Comment: This letter is from Rav Moshe Feinstein addressed to Dr. Elliot Bondi, reaffirming that brain death is death according to Halacha. The letter was dictated to Rabbi Mordechai Tendler in Yiddish by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, as were all of his correspondence in the latter days of his life. Rabbi Mordechai Tendler translated the Yiddish into Hebrew and Rabbi Yitzchak Zundel Swiatycki typed the letter in Hebrew. Rav Moshe Feinstein reviewed the typed letter and after affirming that it accurately reflected his position, he signed it and stamped it. [This photocopy was taken ASSIA magazine. At the bottom, there is an editorial note that comingles the names of Rabbi Mordechai Tendler with Rabbi Yitzchak Zundel Swiatycki, referring to them as Rabbi Mordechai Swiatycki.]
22.Moment of Death
Download: English
Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Moshe; Auerbach, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman
Publication: Jewish Medical Ethics, Vol II No. 2
Year: 1995
23.Opinion of Rav Moshe Feinstein
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Dovid
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, page 147
Year:
HOD Comment: Rabbi Dovid Feinstein testifies that his father's position was a person is halachicly dead if s/he can not breathe on his/her own and its irreversable - even if the heart is still beating.
24.Rav Moshe Feinstein's Postion on Brain-stem Death Clarified
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Rappaport, Rabbi Shabtai
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, page 148(5)-148(7)
Year: 1993
HOD Comment: Letter from Rabbi Shabtai Rappaport to Rabbi Mordechai Halperin expounding Rav Moshe Feinstein's Position. Rabbi Shabtai Rappaport was Rav Moshe Feinstein's amanuensis for the last two volumes of Iggrot Moshe.
25.The Waiting Game: The Struggle to Find Organ Donors with the Less then Generous Public
Download: English
Author: Satel, Dr. Sally
Publication: In Character
Year: 2006
HOD Comment: A personal plea to legalize the purchasing of organs.
26.Living Will (Health Care Proxy): Rabbinical Council of America (RCA)
Download: English
Author: Bioethics Committee of the RCA
Publication:
Year: 1991
27.Chief Rabbinate of Israel: Ruling on Organ Donation
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Chief Rabbinate of Israel, Halachic Committee
Publication:
Year: 1986
28.Living Will: Agudath Israel of America (Agudah)
Download: English
Author:
Publication:
Year: 1991
HOD Comment: Please do not print this article and use it as a living will. This document is here for research and historical purposes only. The Aggudah asks you to please call them to obtain the latest version at the Agudath Israel of Americah (Agudah)call 212-797-9000.
29.Determining Death and Delayal of Burial
Download: Hebrew
Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication: Reponsum Tzitz Eliezer 9:46
Year:
30.Tests to Determine the Time of Brain Death
Download: English
Author: Unknown
Publication: Unknown
Year: Unknown
31.Transplantation
Download: English
Author: Steinberg, Prof. Avraham
Publication: Encyclopedia of Jewish Medical Ethics
Year: ?
HOD Comment: Translated by Dr. Fred Rosner
32.Halachic Definition of Death in Light of Medical History, The
Download: English
Author: Reichman, Dr. Edward
Publication: Torah U-Madda Journal, The
Year: 1993
33.An Overview of Organ Transplantation
Download: English
Author: Durst, Prof. Aryeh
Publication: ASSIA Journal of Jewish Medical Ethics and Halacha;Vol. III, No. 1
Year: 1997, January
34.Medical-Halachic Decisions of Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (1910-1995)
Download: English
Author: Steinberg, Dr./Rabbi Avraham
Publication: ASSIA Journal of Jewish Medical Ethics and Halacha;Vol. III, No. 1
Year: 1997, January
35.Sheep Experiment - Hebrew
Download: Hebrew
Author: Auerbach, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman as discussed by Yosef Eliyahu
Publication: Hatorah Hamesamachat
Year: 1998
36.The Laws of Saving Lives: Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach
Download: English
Author: Halperin, Dr./Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: ASSIA Journal of Jewish Medical Ethics and Halacha; Vol. III, No. 1
Year: 1997, January
37.Organ Transplants: Responsa
Download: English
Author: Yisraeli, Rabbi Shaul
Publication: ASSIA Journal of Jewish Medical Ethics and Halacha;Vol. III, No. 1
Year: 1997, January
38.Rabbi Moshe Feinstein's Influence on Medical Halacha
Download: English
Author: Rosner, Dr. Fred
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XX, The
Year: 1990, Fall / Succot 5751
39.Ethics of Organ Donations, The
Download: English
Author: Tendler, Rabbi Dr. Moses
Publication: N/A
Year: 1995, December 4
HOD Comment: A Lecture Summary
40.Artificial Heart Implantation
Download: English
Author: Bleich, Rabbi J. David
Publication: Contemporary Halachic Problems, Vol. III, Chapter VIII
Year: 1989
Publisher: Ktav, New York
41.ASSIA Abstracts
Download: English
Author: Fink, Ph.D., David
Publication: Jewish Medical Ethics
Year: 1997, January
42.An Introduction to Organ Transplantation
Download: English
Author: Rosner, Dr. Fred
Publication: ASSIA Magazine, Jewish Medical Ethics
Year: 1997, January
43.Ethical Aspects of Organ Transplantation
Download: English
Author: Glick, Prof. Shimon
Publication: ASSIA Magazine, Jewish Medical Ethics
Year: 1997, January
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
44.Ethical Aspects of Organ Transplantation - Hebrew
Download: Hebrew
Author: Glick, Prof. Shimon
Publication: The First International Colloquium on Medicine, Ethics & Halacha
Year: 1993
45.Death According to the Halacha
Download: English
Author: Soloveitchik, Rabbi Ahron
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XVII, The
Year: 1989, Spring / /Pesach 5749
46.Definition of Death in Judaism
Download: English
Author: Rosner, Dr. Fred & Tendler, Rabbi Moshe David
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XVII, The
Year: 1989, Spring / Pesach 5749
47.Accomodating Religious Objections to Brain Death: Legal Considerations
Download: English
Author: Zwiebel, Esq., Chaim Dovid
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society, The
Year: 1989, Spring
HOD Comment: Highly recommended reading!
48.Determining Death
Download: English
Author: Shachter, Rabbi Herschel
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XVII, The
Year: 1989, Spring / Pesach 5749
49.Medical Aspects of Brain Death
Download: English
Author: Keilson, Dr. Marshall
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XVII, The
Year: 1989, Spring / Pesach 5749
HOD Comment: This article offers a brief medical explanation of brain death for halachic readers. The medical landscape has changed slightly since the 1989 publication though the principles are constant. Much of his explanation of confirmatory tests is repeated in other works on this site (see Wijdicks “Diagnosis of Brain Death”). Dr. Keilson argues because 1) brain-stem death is a reliable indicator of death and 2) systemic death always follows brain-stem death within a short time, “hastening the pronouncement of death” is a good course of action because it lessens suffering of the deceased’s relatives and loved ones, expands the number of transplantable organs, and allows financial and physical resources in the hospital to be made available to a patient whose life might be saved. Dr. Keilson concludes, “whether a ‘neshama’ (soul) leaves the body at the moment of brain death or later, with cessation of heartbeat is a halachic question, not a medical one,” thus redirecting to the journal’s main focus.
50.Barriers to Organ Donation in the Jewish Community
Download: English
Author: Feld, Jordan, MD; Pat Sherbin, MD; Edward Cole, MD
Publication: Journal of Transplant Coordination, Vol.8:19-24, Number 1
Year: March 1998
HOD Comment: This study shows major objections to organ donation held in the Jewish community (at the time of its publication in 1998), with an eye toward developing methods to overcome these barriers. The most common reasons cited by participants were perceived religious prohibition and ethical considerations. This association was more likely to be found in participants with formal Jewish education. The authors go on to highlight the need for better community education on organ donation and sponsorship of organ donor registration, which they address in the guide “Organ Donation: A Jewish Perspective.” Reprint Requests: Phone 416-921-1130, email more@transplant-ontario.org
51.Disconnecting a Terminal Patient From an Artificial Respirator
Download: English
Author: HaLevi, Rabbi C. D.
Publication: Cross Roads: Halacha and the Modern World; Page 147
Year: Unknown
52.Determination of Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Avraham, Prof. Avraham. S.
Publication: Nishmas Avraham, Volume II
Year: ?
53.Moment of Death
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Steinberg, Prof. Avraham
Publication: Encyclopedia of Jewish Medical Ethics
Year: ?
HOD Comment: The Hebrew was translated into English by Dr. Fred Rosner
54.Halachic Aspects of Organ Transplantation
Download: English
Author: Fink, Rabbi Reuven
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/V, The
Year: 1983, Spring
55.How A Rabbi Decides A Medical Halacha Issue
Download: English
Author: Breitowitz, Rabbi Yitzchok
Publication: Synopsis of Presentation, Conference on Jewish Medical Ethics, San Francisco, CA
Year: 1996, February 18-20
56.Ovadiah Yosef Rules Kidney Donations Permissible, Even Obligatory
Download: English
Author: Unknown
Publication: News Report
Year: Unknown
57.Organ Transplant: Soon It May Be a Routine Part of the Jewish Death Ritual
Download: English
Author: Unknown
Publication: Jewish Voice, The
Year: 1996, December
58.Jewish Perspectives on Death and Dying
Download: English
Author: Rosner, Dr. Fred
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XI, The; also ASSIA, V. II, #1, 1991
Year: 1986, Spring / Pesach 5746
59.Halachic Questions: Heart Transplants
Download: English
Author: Cohen, Rabbi J. Simcha
Publication: Jewish Press, The
Year: 1995, Friday, 30 June
60.Organ Transplants
Download: English
Author: Bleich, Rabbi J. David
Publication: Judaism and Healing
Year: 2002
Publisher: KTAV Publishing House
61.Cadavaric Organ Transplantation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin, M.D., Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: Conference on Medicine, Ethics, and Jewish Law
Year:
62.Addendum to: As Good As Dead: Is There Really Such a Thing as Brain Death
Download: English
Author: unknown
Publication: New Yorker, The
Year: 2002, 8/13 circa
HOD Comment: This article addendum provides a synopsis of Gary Greenberg's article on brain death exploring the concept of brain death philosophically. Along with definitions of key medical terms such as 'brain death,' 'persistent vegetative state,' and 'coma,' and Biblical references for 'soul' and 'spirit,' the unknown Christian author emphasizes his or her belief that brain death is an artificial construct -- a point Greenberg makes in the original article. The addendum concludes with a self-test on topics covered previously. To read the original article, please visit http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2001/08/13/010813fa_FACT?currentPage=all.
63.Source Material (Biblical & Rabbinic)
Download: English
Author: Compiled by Dina Neiman Licht
Publication:
Year: 2002
64.Organ Transplantation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication: Reponsum Tzitz Eliezer 13:91
Year: Unknown
65.Prohibition of Tattooing, The
Download: English
Author: Abraham, Dr. Abraham S.
Publication: Nishmat Avraham/ Vol.III /Yoreh Deah/ Page 91/ Siman 180
Year: Unknown
66.For Whom May Sabbath Laws be Set Aside
Download: English
Author: Abraham, Dr. Abraham S.
Publication: Nishmat Avraham/Vol. I/ Orach Chaim/ Page 216/ Siman 329
Year: Unknown
67.Skin Transplants for Burn Victims
Download: English
Author: Yisraeli, Rabbi Shaul
Publication: Cross Roads: Halacha and the Modern World; Page 137
Year: Unknown
68.Chronic Vegetative Patient: A Torah Perspective, The
Download: English
Author: Friedman, Dr. Fred
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XXVI, The
Year: 1993, Fall / Succoth 5754
69.Time of Death
Download: English
Author: Bleich, Rabbi J. David
Publication: Judaism and Healing
Year: 2002
Publisher: KTAV Publishing House
70.Laws Concerning a Gosses, The
Download: English
Author: Abraham, Dr. Abraham S.
Publication: Nishmat Avraham/ VII / Yoreh Deah/ Page 300/ Siman 339
Year: Unknown
71.Living Will, The
Download: English
Author: Ifrah, Rabbi A. Jeff
Publication: Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society/XXIV, The
Year: 1992, Fall / Succoth 5753
72.Gosses, Responsa - Hebrew
Download: Hebrew
Author: Auerbach, R. Shlomo Zalman, as discussed by R. Leizersohn, R. Vozber
Publication: Second Intenational Conference on Medicine, Ethics & Halacha
Year: 1996
73.Organ Transplants from Living Donors
Download: English
Author: Halperin, Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: ASSIA Journal of Medicine, Ethics & Halacha, Vol. II, No.1
Year: 1991, January
74.Legal Significance of Ruling of the Chief Rabbinate on Heart Transplants
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin, Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, page 125
Year: 1993
75.Prohibition of Murder
Download: Hebrew
Author: Nevenzahl, Rabbi Avigdor
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. V, page 259
Year: 1986
76.Overview of Organ Transplantion
Download: Hebrew
Author: Durst, Prof. Aryeh
Publication: The First International Colloquium on Medicine, Ethics & Halacha
Year: 1993
77.Moment of Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Shachter, Rabbi Herschel
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 188-206
Year: 1993
78.Heart and Liver Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Bar Ilan, Rabbi Naphtali
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 177-187
Year:
79.Terminal Patient
Download: English
Author: Goldberg, Rabbi Zalman Nechemia
Publication: The First International Coloquium on Medicine, Ethics, & Halacha
Year: 1993
80.Determining the Moment of Death and Heart Transplant
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg, Dr. Avraham
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 209-230
Year: 1993
81.Brain Stem Death: R. Auerbach
Download: Hebrew
Author: Auerbach, R. Shlomo Zalman
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, page 148(b) - 148(d)
Year: 1993
82.Trefah
Download: Hebrew
Author: Ilani, Rabbi Yaacov
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 207-208
Year: 1993
83.Heart Transplant
Download: English
Author: Halperin, Rav Mordechai
Publication:
Year:
84.Are Heart Transplants Allowed by Halacha?
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin, Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. V., page 55
Year: 1986
85.Saving Lives according to the Teachings of Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach
Download: English
Author: Halperin, Rabbi Dr. Mordechai
Publication: The 2nd International Colloquium on Medicine, Ethics & Halacha
Year: 1996
86.Terminally Ill Patient
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Steinberg, Dr. Avraham
Publication: First & Second International Conference of Medicine, Ethics & Halacha
Year: 1996
87.Choleh Lefaneinu
Download: Hebrew
Author: Levy, Dr. Yaacov
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 1, page 202
Year: 1989
88.Decisions of Rav Auerbach
Download: English
Author: Auerbach, Rabbi
Publication:
Year:
89.Modern Perspectives on Halacha & Medicine
Download: English
Author: Halperin, Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: ASSIA Journal of Jewish Medical Ethics and Halacha; Vol. I, No. 2
Year: 1989
HOD Comment: Vol. I, No. 2, May 1989, pp. 11-19 Same document appears twice. First time it was scanned; second time appears as PDF document.
90.Prohibition of Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 149-162
Year: 1993
91.Permissablity of Heart Transplant: Foundation of Chief Rabbinate's Ruling
Download: Hebrew
Author: Yisraeli, Rabbi Shaul
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 167-176
Year: 1993
92.Cadavaric and Live Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Yisraeli, Rabbi Shaul
Publication: The First International Colloquium on Medicine, Ethics & Halacha
Year: 1993
93.Heart Transplants
Download: Hebrew
Author: Wozner, Rabbi Shmuel Halevi
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 163-165
Year: 1993
94.Opinion of the Netziv from Velozhin on Brain-stem Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Weiner, Rabbi Yaacov
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, page 166
Year: 1993
95.Jewish Perspectives on Death and Dying
Download: English
Author: Rosner, Dr./Rabbi Fred
Publication: ASSIA Journal of Jewish Medical Ethics, Vol.II, No. 1
Year: 1991, January
96.Gosses
Download: Hebrew
Author: Goldberg, Rabbi Zalman Nechemia
Publication: The First International Colloquium on Medicine, Ethics, & Halacha
Year: 1993
97.Lack of Authority
Download: English
Author: Shafran, R. Yigal
Publication: The 2nd International Conference on Medicine, Ethics and Halacha
Year: 1996
98.Personal Story - Chaya Gross
Download: Hebrew
Author: Gross, Chaya
Publication: ASSIA Book, Vol. 7, pages 231-238
Year: 1993 (Incident occurred in 1986)
99.Thoughts on the Jewish Perspective Regarding Organ Transplantation
Download: English
Author: Mayer RNC EdD, Susan L
Publication: Journal of Transplant Coordination
Year: 1997
HOD Comment: Reprint Requests Phone 800-899-1712 (ext 532), email ivcReprint@aol.com
100.Postmortem- Did Soroka Doctors Do the Right Thing?
Download:
Author: Seigel-Itzkovitch, Judy
Publication: Jerusalem Post, The
Year: 1993, Friday June 25
101.Right to Live, The
Download:
Author: Fishkoff, Sue
Publication: Jerusalem Post, The
Year: 1996 January 19
102.Halachic Insights into Brain-Death
Download: English
Author: Rabbi Yaakov Weiner
Publication: Ye Shall Surely Heal
Year: 1995
Publisher: Jerusalem Center for Research
HOD Comment: Chapter 5 in the book. Please address questions, remarks or requests to: Rabbi Yaakov Weiner, Jerusalem Center for Research, 23 Yonah Street, Jerusalem, 95502, Israel - Tel 02-383-558
103.Lethal Legislation
Download: English Hebrew
Author: Berman, Robert
Publication: Harvard Review Journal
Year: 2005
Publisher: Harvard University
HOD Comment: An editorial advocating the legalization and government regulation of buying and selling organs.
104.The Medical Basis for Determining Brain Stem Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Sommer, Professor Haim
Publication: ASSIA 7, pg 129-136
Year: 1993
105.More Regarding Rabbi Moshe Feinstein's Opinion
Download: Hebrew
Author: Lewinstein, Dr. Israel
Publication: Moment of Death
Year: 2006
Publisher: The Schlesinger Institute
HOD Comment: This article was published and made available by The Schlesinger Institute.
106.Flesh Trade: Weighing the Repugnance Factor
Download: English
Author: Dubner, Stephen and Steven Levitt
Publication: New York Times Magazine
Year: July 9, 2006
HOD Comment: In this article, economists enter the discussion of methods to increase potential organs, particularly kidneys (more desirable from a living donor). Levitt and Dubner, authors of the well-known book "Freakonomics," argue that the 'repugnance factor' many associate with monetary incentives for living donors would recede over time. Citing the dramatic change in social attitude toward life insurance and charging interest amidst the sobering facts that more than 3500 people die a year waiting for a kidney. The article closes with a description of the New England Program for Kidney Exchange (NEPKE), an innovative collaborative effort that pairs those in need of a kidney and their loved one (proven not to match the recipient) with other similar couples for simultaneous donation. This idea of incentive alignment eliminates the 'repugnance factor' and the need for monetary incentives, which are morally questionable and could put undue pressure on the indigent.
107.The Halachic Moment of Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Kahana Shapiro, Rav Avraham
Publication: Moment of Death
Year: 2006
Publisher: The Schlesinger Institute
HOD Comment: This article was published and made available by the Schlesinger Institute.
108.Principles in Cardiac Surgery
Download: Hebrew
Author: Applebaum, Prof Azai
Publication: ASSIA 6, pg 15-19
Year: 1989
109.Cardiac Surgery According to Halacha
Download: Hebrew
Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication: ASSIA 6, pg 20-26
Year: 1989
110.Opinion of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein
Download: Hebrew
Author: Levenstein, Dr.Yisrael
Publication: ASSIA 7, pg 145-146
Year: 1993
111.Opinion of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach on Cadavaric Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Avraham, Dr Avraham
Publication: ASSIA 9, 383-385
Year: 2004
112.Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Dick, Rabbi Yehuda
Publication: ASSIA 9, pg 367-377
Year: 2004
113.Organ Transplantation and the Definition of the Moment of Death
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Author: Steinberg, Rabbi Dr. Avraham
Publication: www.medicalethics.org.il
Year:
114.Mishnayot Ohalot 1:6
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Author: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was the Editor
Publication: Mishnayot
Year: Circa 200
HOD Comment: Mishna states that is a living organism is decapitated, even though limbs are moving it is dead according to Halacha.
115.Chacham Tzvi Responsa 77
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Author: Chacham Tzvi
Publication:
Year: Circa 1700
HOD Comment: Rav Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi, also known as the Chacham Tzvi, was born in 1660 and died in 1718(His son was Rav Yaakov Emden). This response states that a beating heart is a requirement for life. But clearly the Chacham Tzvi was not talking about a case of brain death where the person (or chicken as in this case) can't breathe. Those who claim that brain-stem death is not halachic death, quote this responsa to support their position because it put emphasis on the heart. But those who accept BSD as halachic death point out that while the Chacham Tzvi writes one needs a beating heart to live, and it necessary for life, he does not write that a beating heart alone is sufficient in and of itself. When he writes the "soul is in the heart" it is rhetorical flourish to indicate that without a beating heart a person or animal can't live. But again, that is not say it is sufficient for human life. A analogy would be that an airplane needs an engine to fly and to be called an airplane. But that does not mean if you have a working engine that you have an airplane.
116.Teshuvot Chatam Sofer 338
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Author: Chatam Sofer, otherwise known as Rav Moshe Schreiber
Publication:
Year: Circa 1840
HOD Comment: Rav Moshe Schreiber, known as the Chatam Sofer, was born in 1763 in Frankfurt, Germany and died in Pressburg in 1840. While the Neo-Orthodox sought to engage the maskilim (enlighteners) and to directly combat them, the Chatam Sofer adopted the view of "Chadash assur min HaTorah" - all that is novel in religious practice is forbidden by the Torah. Since this response (# 338) states that irreversible cessation of heart beat is one sign of death, those who do not accept BSD as halachic death quote this response as proof that a beating heart, at least according to the Chatam Sofer, is a sign of life and thus a person who is BSD and on a respirator is not dead according to halacha. Those that accept BSD as halachic death point out that a) in the very same response he states that cessation of respiration is the classical definition of death according to Jewish law and to understand this apparent contradiction they point out b) this teshuva was written as a challenge and response to the secular law instituted by the Duke of Mecklenberg, Germany, in 1772 that one must wait 3 days before burying a corpse in order to ensure the person is truly dead. According to this reading, the Chatam Sofer is simply stating the natural order of death in those days (before the invention of a respirator) is unconsciousness, irreversible cessation of heart beat, and then irreversible cessation of respiration. He states Jewish law only requires irreversible cessation of respiration as the determinant of death, but if the secular authorities want to wait even longer they can wait until cessation of heart beat and then bury the person without waiting 3 days.
117.Divrei Chaim
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Author:
Publication: Responsum Even Haezer Vol II Listing 64
Year:
118.Textual Variation
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Author: Meiri
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: We see in this text of the Mishna that the Meiri does not quote the heart at all.
119.Mishna Laws of Murders 9 9
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Author: Kesef Mishna Laws of Murders 9 9
Publication:
Year:
120.Melachim I, Perek 17, Pesukim 17-24
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Author:
Publication: Kings 1 Chapter 17 Verse 17 to 24
Year:
121.Melachim Chapter 2, Verses 19-37
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Author: Prophets (Bible)
Publication: Kings II Chapt 4 Verse 19 to 37
Year:
122.Heart Transplants
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Author: Minchat Yitzchak Vol 5 Siman 7
Publication: Reponsum Minchat Yitzchak
Year:
123.Responsum - Minchat Yitzchak
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Author: Minchat Yitzchak Vol 5 Siman 8
Publication: Responsum Minchat Yitzchak
Year:
124.Mishna Nidda Chap 10 Misna 4
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Author:
Publication:
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125.Mishna Sota Chap 9 Mishna 4
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Author:
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Year:
HOD Comment: Here is a debate between navel and nose.
126.Mishana Yevamot Chap 16 Mishna 3
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Author:
Publication:
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127.Moreh Nevuchim Vol I 42
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Author: Ramabam Maimonides
Publication: Moreh Nevuchim Vol I 42
Year:
128.Tractate Niddah 69b
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Author:
Publication: Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Niddah Page 96 b
Year:
129.Bet Yosef Orach Chayim 329
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Textual Varation: It has navel instead of heart.
130.Genesis Chap 2 Verse 7
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Source of life is breathing.
131.Maimonides Commentary on Mishnayot Yoma Chap 8 Mishna 5
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
132.Maimonides Commentary on Mishaynot Sotah Chap 9 Mishna 4
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Textual Variation: Debate is between navel and nose.
133.Radak on Kings I Chap 17 Verse 17-24
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Author: Radak
Publication:
Year:
134.Radbaz Chap 2 Siman 695
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Author: Radbaz
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Pregnant woman dying in labor.
135.Tractate Yevamot 120b
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Author:
Publication: Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Yevamot 120b
Year:
136.Tractate Yoma Chap 8 Page 45
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Author:
Publication: Yerushalmi Talmud
Year:
HOD Comment: Textual Variation: Here is navel instead of heart.
137.Tur Yoreah Deah 394
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
138.Tractate Sotah Page 45b
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Author:
Publication: Babylonian Talmud
Year:
139.Samuel 1 Chap 25 Verse 37
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
140.Tractate Shabbat Page 151b
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Author:
Publication: Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Shabbat Page 151b
Year:
141.Rosh Tractate Yoma Chap 8 Siman 16
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Textual Variation: It says Navel instead of Heart.
142.Responsum Rivash Siman 45
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
143.Rif Yoma Chap 8
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Textual Variation: Here it states navel instead of heart.
144.Mishna Torah Shabbat Chap 2 Halacha 19
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Author: Maominodes
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Maomonides rules that we only check breathing.
145.Mishnah Torah Laws of Murder Chap 9 Halacha 9
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Author: Maimonides
Publication:
Year:
146.Double Murder
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Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Moshe
Publication: Iggrot Moshe
Year:
147.Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 339 Paragraph 1
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Author: Shulchan Aruch
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Gosses. Things forbidden to do to a deathly ill person that will mostly likely die in 3 days.
148.Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 329 Saif 4
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Author: Shulchan Aruch
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Rules that absence of breathing determines death.
149.Titz Eliezer Chap 13 Siman 89 to 12
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Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication:
Year:
150.Tzitz Eliezer Chap 14 Siman 81
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Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication:
Year:
151.Tzitz Eliezer Chap 14 Siman 80
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Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication:
Year:
152.Tzitz Eliezer Vol 10 Siman 25 Chap 6
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Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication: Vol 10 Siman 25 Chap 6
Year:
153.Tzitz Eliezer Vol 10 Chap 25 Siman 5
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Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication:
Year:
154.Tzitz Eliezer Vol 25 Chap 25 Siman 4
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Author: Waldenberg, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda
Publication:
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155.Avel Rabbati Chap 3 Halacha 1
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Author:
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: Laws of Gosses
156.Determing the Moment of Death: Historial, Medical and Halachic Positions
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Author: Steinberg, Rabbi Dr. Avraham
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: 16 pages
157.Determining Death and Comments on the Chief Rabbinate's Ruling
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Author: Avraham, Dr Avraham
Publication:
Year:
158.Brain Death: Revisiting the Rabbinic Opinions in Light of Current Medical Knowledge
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Author: Kunin, Dr. Joshua
Publication: Tradition 2004, 28:4
Year:
Publisher: Rabbinical Council of America
159.Don't Pull the Plug on Brain Death Just Yet.
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Author: Reichman, Dr. Rabbi Eddie
Publication: Tradition 2004, 28:4
Year:
Publisher: Rabbinical Council of America
160.Communications: Brain Death
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Author: Reichman, Dr. Edward & Dr. Joshua Kunin
Publication: Tradition
Year: 2005
161.The Case for Living Kidney Sales: Rationale, Objections, and Concerns
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Author: Matas, Arthur J.
Publication: American Journal of Transplantation
Year: 2004
Publisher: Blackwell Munksgaard
HOD Comment: This provocative article presents a case for living kidney sales, including investigating many ethical questions and barriers to instituting this policy. Historically, organ sales were condemned at a time when cadaveric donations were believed to be both plentiful and of the same quality as living donors. Thus, risks to the living donor were seen as unnecessary. Today, the landscape looks quite different. Mortality rates for uninephrectomy (removal of a single kidney) are very low (0.03%), the waiting list for kidneys is growing exponentially, and current donor lists have flat-lined despite creative expansion measures. This leaves more patients dying on the waiting list and dependent on costly and painful dialysis. Matas argues that the current situation warrants reopening discussions of living donor incentives within a regulated system and offers some potential constructs for a government-regulated organ vendor system. He also points out that organ donation personnel have been missing from discussions on monetary incentives and calls for their participation. Finally, he presents a series of unknowns which warrant further investigation, such as the effect of monetary vendor incentives on altruistic donation and current opinion (public and lawmaker) on the subject. Overall, Matas presents a compelling case to look at kidney sales not as an interesting hypothetical question, but as a real-life, real-time meeting of ethics with lives hanging in the balance.
162.Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th Century America
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Author: Zelizer, Viviana
Publication: The American Journal of Society, Vol. 84, No. 3
Year: 1978
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
163.Kidney Exchange
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Author: Roth, Alivin; Sonmez, Tayfun; Unver, Utku
Publication: The Quarterly Journal of Economics
Year: 2004, May
164.Introducing Incentives in the Market for Live and Cadaveric Organ Donations
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Author: Becker, Gary S.; Elias, Julio Jorge
Publication:
Year: 2002
165.Neurological Determination of Death
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Author: Trillium Gift of Life Network
Publication: www.giftoflife.on.ca
Year: 2003
HOD Comment: This is the protocol used in Ontario Canada by physicians to determine brain death.
166.The Diagnosis of Brain Death
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Author: Wijdicks, M.D., Eelco
Publication: New England Journal of Medicine
Year: April 19, 2001
HOD Comment: This review focuses on the how doctors determine brain death, the potential confusing factors, and discusses valid confirmatory tests. Brain-stem death implies total loss of function to the part of the brain responsible for spontaneous breathing, maintaining blood pressure, cough reflex, pupil dilation, and to some extent heart rate. When these reflexes do not work, a spontaneous breathing test (apnea test) is performed. Finally, confirmatory tests proving a lack of blood flow to the brain-stem and absence of brain electrical activity are performed. At this time, the patient’s family should be told about their loved one’s hopeless condition and options for organ donation discussed. A few important notes: 1) reflex testing on infants and children is more complicated because their reflexes may not be fully formed 2) even after a patient fails reflex tests, spontaneous movements have been documented; these are spinal movements and not an indication of brain function 3) patients must be ruled out for locked-in syndrome (an almost total paralysis of a conscious patient with partial control of eye movements), hypothermia, drug intoxication, and, in some severe cases, Guillain-Barre Syndrome (a rare paralysis starting at the feet and rising over a few days).
167.Correspondence on "The Diagnosis of Brain Death" (See preceding article)
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Author: Cranston, Truog, Broyde, et. al.
Publication: New England Journal of Medicine
Year: 2001
HOD Comment: Note highlighted areas. Several doctors respond to the preceding article, "The Diagnosis of Brain Death," which appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine in April, 2001.
168.Source Sheet Hebrew
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Author: Mois Navon Compiled
Publication:
Year:
169.Address of John Paul II to the 18th International Congress of the Transplantation Society
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Author: Pope John Paul II
Publication: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
Year: 2000
170.Short and Long Term Outcomes With the Use of Kidney and Liver Donated After Cardiac Death
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Author: Doshi, M.D. and L.G. Hunsicker
Publication: American Journal of Transplantation
Year: 2007
HOD Comment: This study shows positive results from patients who received deceased after cardiac death (DCD) kidneys and livers. DCD organs are from potential donors who have sustained irreversible neurological injury, but do not meet formal brain death criteria (DBD). Often these patients succumb to their injuries when mechanical support is removed thus DCD organs have sustained some injury. DCD kidney recipients and their kidneys had comparable survival rates to DBD recipients. DCD liver recipients and their livers had slightly decreased three year survival rates. Both options prove to be far better than those patients on the recipient waiting list who did not receive organs. Use of DCD organs in the US is relatively new and thus a very small percentage of the total number of organs donated (3% of kidneys and 1.4% of livers), which could affect these results. Two other liver options, split livers (when one adult liver may be shared approx. 60 - 40% between two recipients) and livers from donors above 60 years of age are compared to DCD livers.
171.Pediatric Liver and Kidney Transplantation with Allografts from DCD Donors
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Author: Abt, Peter; Randeep Kashyap; Mark Orloff; Ashok Jain; George Tsoulfas; Adel Bozorgzadeh; Kim Olthoff
Publication: Transplantation
Year: December 27, 2006
HOD Comment: Death after Cardiac Death (DCD) organs, a form of expanded criteria organs, have traditionally been associated with greater complications. Generally, organs are given to pediatric cases preferentially though this has not been the case with expanded criteria organs for fear of increased organ failure. This study examined the outcome of allDCD liver and kidney transplants in pediatric cases over a ten year period and finds the results optimistic . It should be noted that the samples sizes were very small warranting the authors to conclude that "with selective use and in the correct setting, liver and kidney recipients can expect durable results." As with any small sample size, a larger study would be necessary to obtain valid statistical results.
172.The Economics and Ethics for Human Organs
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Author: Hansmann, Henry
Publication: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Year: 1989
173.The International Organ Traffic
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Author: Rothman, David J.
Publication: 10th Annual Conference on
Year: 2002
174.Renal Transplantation: Living Donors and Markets for Body Parts - Halakha in Concert with Halachic Policy or Public Policy
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Author: Warburg, Rabbi Ronnie
Publication: Tradition 40:2
Year: 2007
Publisher: Rabbinical Council of America
175.Kidney Donors Live Longer
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Author: Fehrman-Ekholm, Ingela ; Carl-Gustaf Elinder; Magnus Stenbeck; Gunnar Tydén; Carl-G Groth
Publication: Journal of Clinical Transplantation
Year: 1997
HOD Comment: One of the big questions surrounding living kidney donation (uninephrectomy) is donor safety. This study looked at the survival rates, causes of death, and kidney function of Swedish kidney donors more than 20 years after donation. The study's most significant finding was that donor survival rates were considerably higher than in the general population. This result was most likely due to the strict evaluation process (one out of three applicants is chosen), which selects for the healthiest candidates. Renal function and causes of death were similar to the general population. These findings demonstrate no long-term risk associated with uninephrectomy, suggesting the practice is safe.
176.Brain Death World Wide: Accepted fact but no global consensus in diagnostic criteria
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Author: Wijdicks, Dr. Eelco
Publication: American Academy of Neurology
Year: 2002
HOD Comment: While the concept of brain death is widely accepted, no universal criteria exist for its determination. This study compared guidelines from 80 countries finding that all standards specified exclusion of confounders, irreversible coma, absent motor response, and lack of brain-stem reflexes (see Wijdicks, "The Diagnosis of Brain Death" for more information). The majority of countries had medical practice standards (88%), legal standards (69%), utilized some form of apnea testing (59%), and required more than one physician's declaration (50%). Specifics varied widely on the qualifications of the physician, methods of apnea testing, and observation time before pronouncement of death. Regional differences were also noted, such as mandatory laboratory tests in Europe and Asia. Within the United States, brain death determination has been left to each state to decide (44 states and the District of Columbia have guidelines) whereas most African countries do not. Even if guidelines are not standardized, it is clear there is a universal acceptance of brain death as a concept. Dr. Wijdicks concludes his survey with a call for an international task force on brain death guideline standardization, or, alternatively reexamination and revision of each country's individual guidelines should cultural and religious beliefs dictate national policy.
177.Organs For Change
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Author: Siegler, Mark, MD
Publication: The University of Chicago Magazine
Year: 2007
HOD Comment: The first of two articles in this file, "Organs for Change," provides a concise history of organ transplantation, clinical medical ethics, and their intersections. Of transplantation's ethical issues, Dr. Siegler says, "if you can grasp the ethical issues in transplantation, you grasp the major ethical issues in medicine." Clinical medical ethics emerged as a field in the 1970s, challenged by the two major principles of organ donation: how to fairly increase supply and methods for equitable distribution. Dr. Siegler and his colleagues developed methods for ethical oversight with surgical innovation and establishing paired kidney exchange (including a Congressional amendment to the 1984 ban on organ sales). Fairly increasing organ supply continues to be a challenge as waiting lists are growing without a commiserate number of donors. Dr. Siegler's solution includes further amendment of the 1984 ban to allow for a regulated system of organ sales.
178.The Morality of a Free Market for Transplant Organs
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Author: Nelson, Mark
Publication: Public Affairs Quaterly
Year: 1991
179.Payment for donor kidneys: Pros and cons
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Author: Friedman, EA and AL Friedman
Publication: Kidney International
Year: 2006
HOD Comment: This 2006 article argues for the establishment of a regulated system of kidney sales. This proposal comes in the wake of celebrity endorsements, public relations campaigns, and driver's license organ donor registration which have failed to meet the increasing demand for organs. As a proponent of organs sales, Friedman argues, "The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life." This position is in direct opposition to medical association stances worldwide. In reality, black market organs sales are not uncommon in the developing world, allowing marketeers to take advantage of patients desperate for this life-saving procedure and donors living in poverty. To manage these increasing problems, Drs. Friedman propose the establishment of a fair market price, estimated to be about $40,000, to be paid by a federal agency working in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). This agency would be self-sustaining and could reduce the long-term cost of managing end-stage renal disease by eliminating the need for costly and painful dialysis. The paper concludes with an acknowledgment that the development of another government agency, while not ideal, can reasonably deal with the ethical and medical challenges inherent in the present organ crisis.
180.The Second Jewish Burial (Hebrew)
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Author: Gad, Dr. Dorit
Publication: www.hofesh.org.il
Year: 2004
181.Visual Acuity Impairment and Mortality in US Adults
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Author: Lee. David J., PhD; Orlando Gomez-Marin PhD; Byron L. Lam MD; D. Diane Zheng, MS
Publication: Archives of Ophthalmology
Year: 2002
HOD Comment: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between reported visual impairment and mortality among a nationally representative sample of American adults. The study's findings show that severe visual impairment and less severe VI, to a lesser extent, are associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths in American women; no link was found for men. These findings, though not fully understood, are similar to other previous studies on cardiovascular disease. For more information regarding the significance of the link between visual impairment and halacha, please see the explanation of Lee et al's "Visual Impairment and Unintentional Injury Mortality: The National Health Interview Survey 1986–1994."
182.Visual Impairment and Unintentional Injury Mortality: The National Heath Interview Survey 1986-1994
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Author: Lee, David J., PhD; Orlando Gomez-Marin MSc, PhD; Byron L. Lam MD; D. Diane Zheng, MS
Publication: American Journal of Opthalmology
Year: 2003
HOD Comment: This paper examines the relationship between reported visual impairment and unintentional injury mortality. Data indicate that severe, bilateral visual impairment is associated with an increased risk of unintentional mortality among adults in the United States. This would seem to support that saving a person from blindness is halachically as if he is being saved from a life-threatening desease (suma kamet). Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA. dlee@med.miami.edu
183.Post-Mortem Sperm Retrieval
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Author: Halperin. Dr. Mordechai
Publication: Jewish Medical Ethics
Year: 2001
184.Source Sheet on Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Navon, Moize
Publication:
Year:
185.Interaction of Organ Donor Families and Recipients
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Author: Lewino, David, RN, CCRN, CPTC; Lisa Stocks RN, MSN, CPTC; Gail Cole RN, BSN, CCRN, CPTC
Publication: Journal of Transplant Coordination
Year: 1996
HOD Comment: The purpose of this study was to determine feelings about direct contact between donor families and recipients. The study found that the majority believed they had a right to meet and were in favor of direct contact. Families wanted to see the benefit of organ donation first-hand and favored prior correspondence. Recipients most often wished to express their gratitude. Both groups believed meetings should be organized by an agency involved in the donation though they did not believe the agency should be responsible for the meeting's outcome. On the basis of these findings, suggested guidelines were developed to implement meetings. These guidelines can be found at the end of the article.
186.Sales of Organs from a Living Donor for Transplant: Motivation and Decision Making
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Author: Rappoport, Shabtai
Publication: Greene Fund for Equity Studies
Year:
187.Sale or Donation of Human Organs
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Author: Cohen, Rabbi Alfred
Publication: The Journal of Halacha
Year: 2006
188.Explaining brain death: a critical feature of the donation process
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Author: Franz, Holly G., BSN; William DeJong PhD; Susan M. Wolfe BA; Howard Nathan BS; Denise Payne RN, MPA; William Reitsma BSW; Carol Beasley MPPM
Publication: Journal of Transplant Coordination
Year: 1997
HOD Comment: TThis study examined how families' understanding of brain death affected their decision to donate their loved one's organs. Little more than half reported receiving an explanation of brain death. Most respondents, even those who had chosen to donate their loved one's organs, could not demonstrate a clear understanding. Few reported hospital or organ procurement organization staff used visual aids to clarify or reinforce the ideas presented. Before making organ donation requests, a physician should provide a consultation on brain death and the severity of the donor's injury. Healthcare providers should be familiar with common misconceptions and assess the family's understanding of brain death. To ensure this communication happens, a clear protocol has been provided at the end of the article.
189.Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: Process and Review
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Author: Edwards, John M., RN, BSN, RRT, CPTC; Richard D. Hasz Jr.; Virginia M. Robertson BS
Publication: AACN Clinical Issues in Critical Care Nursing
Year: 1999
HOD Comment: Non-heart-beating donation (NHBD), a process by which organs are recovered from patients after pronouncement of death by cardiopulmonary criteria, has mistakenly been label a new donation procedure. This article describes the NHBD donation process, ethical considerations, and the nurse's role in assisting families with this end-of-life decision. Patients meeting NHBD criteria have sustained life-threatening injuries (including devastating neurological damage though do not fit strict brain death criteria) prompting withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. These treatments are only withheld if it is believed that the patient's cardiopulmonary function will stop within one hour of withdrawal. To assess cardiopulmonary function, the patient is removed from the ventilator briefly while the doctor looks for a rapid decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation, all telltale signs of impending cardiopulmonary cessation. It is important to note that withdrawal of life support is a common end-of-life practice and that the decision to withdraw should be made before any mention of organ donation. Once the decision to donate has been made, a representative from the transplant team should meet to coordinate timing of withdrawal. The representative should explain that the timing and location of withdrawal can affect which organs are available for donation. For example, should the patient be pronounced dead within one hour of withdrawal, cardiopulmonary criteria would be used and he or she would be rushed to surgery to recover organs available for donation. Organs are best transplanted as soon after death as possible, each with a different timeframe of viability. After all explanations, the family's wishes should be respected. A helpful case study can be found at the end of the article.
190.Non-Heart-Beating donors: One response to the organ shortage
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Author: D'Alessandro, Anthony M., MD; Robert M. Hoffmann; Folkert O. Belzer
Publication: Transplantation Review
Year: 1995
HOD Comment: Before brain death criteria, there was only non-heart-beating donation (NHBD). NHBD is associated with longer ischemic times, which caused the practice to fall out of favor after brain death criteria were accepted in the 1970s. Ischemia causes damage by limiting or blocking blood flow to an organ. Within NHBD, there are two types: controlled and uncontrolled. In controlled NHBD, time of death is dependent on withdrawal of life support as determined by the family and physician. Controlled NHBD was expected to yield the greatest number of 'extrarenal organs' (i.e. not kidneys). In contrast, uncontrolled NHBD is often from patients suffering a sudden death, such as heart attack. Uncontrolled donations are more complicated because the family must have time to hear about donation and come to a conclusion while organs are still viable. Since this process takes time, uncontrolled NHB donors were expected to contribute mostly kidneys, which can withstand more ischemia. These criteria will expand the number of organs available for transplant and should be implemented in conjunction with other expansion efforts.
191.Observations of withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from patients who became non-heart-beating organ donors
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Author: DeVita, Michael A., MD; James V. Snyder MD, FCCM; Robert M. Arnold MD; Laura A. Siminoff PhD
Publication: Critical Care Medicine
Year: 2000
HOD Comment: At the time of non-heart-beating donation's revival, press reports circulated claiming organ donation was being performed on donors before they had died. This article investigates how to adequately document death and appropriate signs of death before issuing a death certificate. These procedures are especially important in cases of organ donation from non-heart-beating donors where the gap between donor death and organ recovery should be as short as possible. The study found that circulation did not resume after more than one minute of absent circulation, suggesting that two minutes should suffice for certification of death. A few patients had inadequate documentation in their records, which could raise concern for potential abuse. At the time of this article's 2000 publication, no accepted national standards existed for the certification of death or necessary documentation required for record keeping and oversight existed. These findings demonstrate the need for development of a standardized death certification practice, eliminating any doubt of a patient's death or the status of a donor at the time of donation.
192.Organ donors: Your care is critical
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Author: Edwards, John, RN, BSN, RRT, CPTC; Richard Hasz BS, MFS, CPTC; Jerome Menendez RN, CPTC
Publication: RN Journal
Year: 1997
HOD Comment: This step-by-step guide provides a concise "how to" manual for a nursing care of an organ donor. Nurses can be involved in all stages of organ donor care from identification of a possible donor to organ recovery; they are particularly helpful in the management of a donor. This article explains who can be considered a potential donor, how and when to approach the family about donation, and what to look out for as the patient declines. These techniques guarantee the donor will receive the specialized care needed to ensure the viability of as many organs as possible, thus saving the greatest number of lives.
193.There is an answer to the shortage of organs donor
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Author: Garrison, R. Neal MD; et.al. (See Notes for additional authors)
Publication: Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics
Year: 1991
HOD Comment: By: R. Neal Garrison MD; Frederick R. Bentley MD; George H. Raque MD; Hiram C. Polk Jr. MD; Linda C. Sladek MSN; Michael J. Evanisko MA; Bruce A. Lucas MD This 1991 study examined the success rates of organ donation requests. The study found that organ donation occurred 22% of the time and that family refusal was the largest reason organs were not donated. In nearly one-fifth of cases, doctors failed to recognize the potential for donation and the family was not approached. The study's most significant finding was that families who were approached twice, first to discuss the death of their loved one and then later by request for organ donation, had the highest rate of donation. It is thought that separating the discussions allows the family to accept the death.
194.Transplantation of Kidneys From Donors Whose Heart Have Stopped Beating
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Author: Cho, Yong W. PhD; Paul I. Terasaki PhD; J. Michael Cecka PhD; David W. Gjertson PhD
Publication: The New England Journal of Medicine
Year: 1998
HOD Comment: This study assessed the efficacy of transplanting kidneys from donors without heartbeats. Using data from the Kidney Transplant Registry, researchers found that transplantation from non-heart-beating donors were often successful at one year and should be considered a reasonable method to increase overall kidney transplant supply. Kidneys from donors who had undergone a unrecoverable trauma had the highest rate of success (vs. death from other causes). In the early period, these kidneys did not function as well, causing recipients to undergo dialysis in the first week after transplant. By one year, the success rate was comparable to kidneys obtained from brain dead patients. Kidneys from donors without heartbeats could represent a considerable supply for transplantation. Some estimate these kidneys could double the number of kidneys available for transplant and should be used to decrease the waiting list for kidneys.
195.Future Market: The Sale of Human Body Parts
Download: English
Author: Jellinek, Samuel
Publication: Greene Study for Equity Studies
Year:
196.Consideration for a Donation
Download: English
Author: Jellinke, Samuel
Publication:
Year:
197.The Potential Benefits of the Pediatric Nonheartbeating Organ Donor
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Author: Koogler, Tracy MD; Andrew T. Costarino Jr. MD, FAAP
Publication: American Academy of Pediatrics
Year: 1998
HOD Comment: This study examined the population of a large hospital's pediatric intensive care unit to determine the potential importance of organ donation from donors without heartbeats. Children in the intensive care unit tend to be sicker than their adult counterparts. They have a higher rate of severe neurological damage and die faster when removed from life support. The study was prompted by the request of two families to donate their children's organs though no formal program existed at the time of publication. Researchers found that routine use of non-heart-beating donation could increase the donor pool by an estimated 42% at their center. These findings demonstrate that pediatric donors without heartbeats would be ideal candidates for organ donation and call for the establishment of pediatric non-heart-beating criteria.
198.Consideration for a Donation: Economic Aspects, Powerpoint Presentation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Jellinek, Samuel
Publication:
Year:
199.Consideration of a Donation- Powerpoint Presentation
Download: English
Author: Jellinek, Samuel
Publication:
Year:
HOD Comment: This discusses non-economics apsects
200.Musar Kliyot (in Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Jennifer Skokin
Publication: Din v'Chesbone
Year: 2006
HOD Comment: Article about Moshiko.
201.Organ Transplants from Living Donors (Kidneys)
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Author: Kedem-Dror, Ronit
Publication: Knesset Library
Year: 2003
202.Enough: The Failure Of The Living Will
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Author: Fagerlin, Angela and Carl E. Schneider
Publication: Hastings Center Report
Year: 2004
203.Nostrils, Navel or Heart?
Download: English
Author: Tal, Rabbi Alex Ph.D.
Publication: -
Year: 2007
HOD Comment: This article evaluates the textual variations of Talmud Yoma 85a concerning the sign of life and death. While the standard printed edition of the Talmud, records the debate as between checking the nostrils (respiration) and the heart (for heartbeat) most manuscripts including, the Talmud Yerushalmi, record the debate as between the nostrils and the navel.
204.People v. Eulo
Download: English
Author:
Publication: Court of Appealls of New York
Year: 1984
HOD Comment: In two separate criminal cases, defendants had been convicted of manslaughter in the shooting deaths of victims whose families had donated their organs for transplantation after they had been declared brain dead. The New York Court of Appeals affirmed both lower court decisions, holding that the term "death" as used in state statutes encompasses cessation of functioning of the entire brain even if the heartbeat and breathing are being sustained by artificial means and that, if victims are properly diagnosed as dead, no subsequent medical procedure such as organ removal can be deemed a cause of death.
205.An Equitable Distribution of Human Organs for Transplantation: Sale of Organs from a Living Donor for Transplant: Motivation and Decision Making
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Author: Rappoport, Rabbi Shabtai
Publication: Greene Fund for Equity Studies
Year: 2006
206.Sephardic Ruling on Brain-Stem Death
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Author: Amar, Rabbi S. M.
Publication:
Year: 2008
207.Retrospective Follow-Up of Transplantation of Kidneys from 'Marginal' Donors
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Author: Dahmane, D., et al.
Publication: Kidney International
Year: 2006
Publisher: International Society of Nephrology
208.Why We Should Develop a Regulated System of Kidney Sales: A Call for Action!
Download: English
Author: Matas, Arthur J.
Publication: The American Society of Nephrology
Year: 2006
HOD Comment: Continuing the discussion for a regulated kidney sales system, Dr. Arthur Matas (Professor of Surgery at University of Minnesota) outlines what the system and its oversights would look like once the 1984 Congressional Ban on organ incentives was lifted. Working within the existing government-regulated organ donor networks, Dr. Matas proposes that regionalized organ procurement organizations (OPOs) would evaluate potential kidney donors, submit the evaluation for regional crossmatch according to the national registry (UNOS) for a matching score, and then offer the organ to the highest ranking candidate in the registry. Upon acceptance, a detailed donor evaluation would be sent to the center. All bills for donor evaluation, surgery, and follow-up would be sent to the OPO, which would then bill the center for its services. Inherent in this system would be certain incentives for the donor. One proposal would offer a fixed sum, term life insurance, long-term health insurance, travel expense and time out of work reimbursements, and/or a tax deduction. Incentives have often been thought of as the morally inferior perspective, though Matas argues, "the moral high ground is to eliminate the ban on financial incentives so that we can increase the number of transplants, significantly decrease or eliminate wait-list deaths, and improve the overall survival rate and quality of life for patients with ESRD [end stage renal disease]." For earlier entries by the same author, see "The Case for Living Kidney Sales: Rationale, Objections, and Concerns."
209.An ethical market in human organs
Download: English
Author: Erin, Charles and John Harris
Publication: Journal of Medical Ethics
Year: 2003
HOD Comment: This paper includes a discussion opener by ethicists Harris and Erin followed by additional articles by Savulescu and Richards on the regulated organ sales debate. Harris and Erin argue that the solution to the organ shortage crisis is an ethical market of organ sales. Their plan would allow a single governing geopolitical area (the UK or EU) to create a single-payer distribution network that would both distribute organs and ensure that no misconduct occurred. Distribution would be assigned according to an established formula of priority. Participants (both vendors and donors) would be resident citizens of the governing area preventing exploitation of citizens from poorer countries. Sellers in this system "would know they had saved a life and would be reasonably compensated for their risk, time, and altruism, which would be undiminished by sale."Savulescu argues that people should have the right to decide for themselves whether or not to sell a body part. When this right is denied, it constrains anindividual's autonomy. He feels this is a "double injustice" for those escaping poverty, as if society is saying, "You can’t have what most other people have and we are not going to let you do what you want to have those things." In contrast, Richards calls for a clarification on the types of arguments against a regulated system for organ sales. She believes that the anti-organ sales camp has failed to distinguish between those who believe that organ sales are immoral and those who anticipate potential harm to be too great when the system is put into practice.
210.Brain Death
Download: English
Author: Elliot, J.M.
Publication: Trauma
Year: 2003
HOD Comment: Dr. Elliot writes a paper describing the British brain death criteria and compares it to other countries' standards. Most brain death standards, such as the US', use a 'whole brain' approach while the UK system recognizes 'brain-stem' death instead. The British define brain-stem death as the "irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness, combined with irreversible loss of the capacity to breathe," all functions attributed to the brain stem. The 'whole brain' approach widens the definition to greater brain function. Because both definitions are ultimately dependent on the brain-stem, many of the same tests are used to diagnose both definitions of brain death. Some countries require further confirmatory tests, such as EEG, for whole brain death. Since EEG measures higher brain functioning, it is excluded in the British definition. Disputes over the validity of minimal activity findings in EEG have called its use into question. Both 'whole brain' and 'brain-stem,' has gained widespread acceptance globally. There is room for greater standardization amongst bodies of criteria. Previous criteria required exclusion of illnesses that could mimic brain death; they apply here as well. Elliot relies heavily on Wijdick's "Brain Death Worldwide" paper; for more information, please see this entry in our listing.
211.Ethical Incentives-- Not Payment-- For Organ Donation
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Author: Delmonico, Francis L., MD; Robert Arnold MD; Nancy Scheper-Hughes PhD; Laura A. Siminoff PhD; Jeffrey Kahn PhD, MPH; Stuart J. Youngner MD
Publication: The New England Journal of Medicine
Year: 2002
Publisher: Massachusetts Medical Society
HOD Comment: The 1984 National Organ Transplant Act forbids the sale of organs and provides a legal basis that selling parts of one's body is unethical. Incentives for organ donation could recognize the great deed a donor has done without attaching a specific monetary value. Some "ethical incentives" proposed include a Congressional medal, partial funeral expense reimbursement, medical leave, organ exchange, and long-term donor insurance. To some, the distinction between payment and incentive may be hazy,afterall, each of these incentives has a monetary value. The authors argue that "nonmonetary recognition of donation appeals to our notions of equity and, most important, does not subvert the altruistic social good that must be preserved in a revised system of organ donation." Maintaining the prohibition of organ sales will limit the exploitation of the poor and uphold the basic ethical principles which keep society functioning.
212.Methods and Principles in biomedical Ethics
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Author: Beauchamp, T.L.
Publication: J. Med. Ethics
Year: 2003
213.Expanding the Donor Pool: Effect on Graft Outcome
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Author: Ramos, E., S. Aoun, W.E. Hermon
Publication: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Year: 2002
Publisher: The American Society of Nephrology
HOD Comment: Expanding waiting lists have pushed healthcare professionals to find additional solutions. A variety of potential solutions, including dual transplant, use of organs with anatomical anomalies, and transplantation from hepatitis C-positive patients, are explained below. Dual transplant uses both kidneys from a single donor with impaired renal function. This technique is common in pediatric cases and could be expanded to adults as well. Successful repair of some anatomical anomalies prior to transplant have yielded positive results and could also be considered more widely. Hepatitis C is a virus causing liver disease and risk of liver failure. A few studies have investigated use of infected donor kidneys for hepatitis C-positive recipients with positive results. Recipients without hepatitis C should not receive an infected organ for fear of liver failure. Other possibilities suggested include kidney exchange and donors whose hearts have stopped beating. For more information, please see other articles devoted to these topics on our site. These donor pool expansion methods would be allocated according to a new government protocol, granting first priority to zero-antigen mismatch recipients (a measure of organ compatibility), then to patients with limited life expectancy due to transplant failure, and finally to those who have been on the waiting list longest. Results for many of these extended criteria populations look promising, both to save lives and improve quality of life. Patients should remember that extended criteria organs have higher rates of complication and failure. These risks should be weighed carefully in order to maximize the number of lives saved.
214.Kaddish for J.J. Greenberg
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Author: Mark, Jonathan
Publication: Jewish Week Blog
Year: 2008
Publisher: The Jewish Week Blog
HOD Comment: Written for the sixth yahrtzeit of J.J. Greenberg, Tuesday, the 8th of Tishrei (Oct. 7, 2008)
215.Organ Transplantation in Israel of 2007 - realitty and vision
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Author: Gurman, G.M.
Publication: Harefuah:147 (5)
Year: 2008
216.Court case decision -health insurance comp. for organ donors
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Author:
Publication: Court of Jerusalem
Year: 2006
Publisher: Jerusalem Court - English translation
217.Renal Transplantation in Iran
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Author: Ghods. Ahad J., MD
Publication: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Year: 2002
Publisher: Oxford journals
HOD Comment: Dr. Ghods, an Iranian nephrologist, describes the history of kidney disease treatment in Iran. Owing to strong cultural and religious objection, no cadaveric organ donation program exists; living related donation is accepted. In 1988, with a growing waiting list, Iran began a controlled living unrelated donor (LURD) program. In this system, patients are encouraged to seek out a related donor. If no donor can be found, the patient is referred to a national LURD coordinating organization. After thorough recipient workup, a transplant is arranged from a matching donor who has also been thoroughly evaluated. After transplantation, the donor receives a "rewarding gift" from the government. The majority of recipients receive a similar gift from the donor's family. These gifts, Dr. Ghods says, "have been limited to a range that the majority of patients of a poor socioeconomic class are able to afford." By 1999, the program had been so successful that the waiting list was eliminated. Iran's transplant and recipient survivor rates are high though they do not match Western standards. Dr. Ghods points out that Iran is a developing country whose medical infrastructure cannot compare to the developed world. The success of this program, combined with the scientific data available, make Iran's living unrelated donor program a successful model of regulated organ sales warranting future investigation.
218.Legalizing the Sale of Kidneys for Transplantations:Suggested Guidelines
Download: English
Author: Rapoport, Jayson, BSc, MB, MRCP; Alexander Kagan MD; Michael Friedlander BM, FRCP
Publication: IMAJ Israel Medical Association Journal
Year: 2002
HOD Comment: This team of Israelis campaigns for a regulated system of organ sales and outlines its possible structure. Officially, organ sales are banned by the Ministry of Health today though it is not technically illegal. Unofficially, it is an "open secret" amongst the end stage renal disease community that kidneys can be bought and transplanted in developing countries with post-transplant follow-up provided by the Israeli government. Under the proposed system, kidney sales would be sanctioned by law and coordinated by Israel Transplant. Suitable donors would undergo the same workup already in place for cadaveric donors. Donor fee would be standardized by the Ministry of Health and paid post-operative by Israel Transplant, which would also be responsible for long-term donor follow-up. Any commercial transplantation outside this framework would be made illegal. Establishing a regulated system for organ sales could reduce overall cost of kidney disease patient management while ensuring better care for donors and recipients.
219.Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halevy, Rabbi Yehiel
Publication: Siach Chachamim
Year: 1995
HOD Comment: Chapter 10, page 233. Rabbi Yehiel Yitzchak Helavy, a scion of prominent Yemenite rabbis, was the Secretary General of the Office of the Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1969-1988. He shows how Jewish sources accept brain death as death and support organ donation. He has a video testimonial on the HODS video page.
220.Consciousness, Coma, and Brain Death - 2009
Download: English
Author: Rosenberg, Roger N. MD - Commentary by
Publication: JAMA
Year: 2009
HOD Comment: This article is a commentary on "A Definition of Irreversible Coma", originally published in JAMA 1968;205(6):227-340 Commenting on the seminal 1968 paper defining criteria for determining brain death, Dr. Rosenberg emphasized the staying power of these criteria and explains new understandings of neurological states often confused with brain death, such as persistent vegetative state (PVS) and coma. The review proved a patient could have a dead brain in an otherwise healthy body and the identified this state as irreversible, both key steps in allowing for organ donation from these patients. Brain death is determined by the absence of all reflexes and normal brain electrical activity. PVS and coma patients, in contrast to brain dead patients, demonstrated neurological activity without visible wakefulness. These findings suggest that future research could elucidate what is happening in these states. Forty years after the Harvard paper, the concept of brain death and the road it paved to organ donation is strong; much work is left to be done to understand similar neurological states such as PVS and coma.
221.Religious Coping and Use of Intensive Life-Prolonging Care Near Death in Patients With Advanced Cancer
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Author: Phelps, Andrea C., MD: Paul K. Maciejewski, PhD, et. al.
Publication: JAMA
Year: 2009
HOD Comment: This article investigated the link between religious coping and the use of intensive life-prolonging care in patients dying of advanced cancer. Researchers found that positive religious coping was associated with more intensive life-prolonging medical care near the end of life. The study concludes that "clinicians should be attentive to religious methods of coping as they discuss prognosis and treatment options with terminally ill patients." While the findings were amongst terminally ill cancer patients, the same outlook could be extended to patients dying of other causes, such as organ failure.
222. The Gift of Life: Ethical issues in organ transplantation
Download: English
Author: Childress, James F, PhD
Publication: Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons
Year: 1996
HOD Comment: Article found on the web at: http://www.facs.org/education/ethics/childresslect.html
223.Striking a chord with Hispanics in quest for organs
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Author: Marshall, Samanth
Publication: Crain's New York Business
Year: 2002
224.What and When is Death?
Download: English
Author: Rubenstein, Alan
Publication: www.The New Atlantis.com
Year: 2009, Spring
HOD Comment: This article provides a careful review of the history of brain death from its initial debates in the 1960s through to some contemporary arguments, both medical and philosophical. Rubenstein, a member of the now defunct President’s Council on Bioethics, also defines terms such as 'heart-beating cadaver', 'total brain failure', and 'death by organ harvesting' with an eye toward expanding the understanding of brain death. Rubenstein concludes with an argument that total brain failure leading to the complete loss of drive to breathe should be recognized as a marker of death, thus allowing organs to be donated by “without requiring us to revolutionize the concept of death by considering it anything other than the biological event that happens to all living things.”
225.Sale of Organs From Living Donor for Transplant Motivation and Decision Making
Download: English
Author: Rappoport, Rabbi Shabtai
Publication: An Equitable Distribution of Human Organs for Transplantation
Year: 1993
HOD Comment: Published by the Faculty of Law of Hebrew University
226.Is there patient autonomy in halacha?
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Author: Schostak, Zev
Publication: Assia-Jewish Medical Ethics Vol II, no. 2
Year: 1995
HOD Comment: published online in Jewish Virtual Library
227.Organ Donation according to Jewish Law (Hebrew)
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Author: HaRav Mordechai Eliyahu
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
228.Decision of the Chief Rabbinical Council on Transplants (Hebrew)
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Author: Chief Rabbinate of Israel
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
229.Sale of organs for transplantation (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: HaRav Yonah Metzger
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
230.Judgement of organs and transplanted devices in the body apropos burial, gratification and ownership (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Eliyahu Bakshi Doron
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
231.Laws determining the moment of death and halachic implications (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Shlomo Amar
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
232.Organ donation: Privilege or duty? (Hebrew)
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Author: Rabbi Shmuel Eliyahu
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
233.Organ transplantation when it's non-life-saving (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Yuval Sherlow
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
234.Life-saving organ donation after the donor's death (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Yoel Bin Nun
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
235.Image of G-d and the question of organ transplantion (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Yitzchak Shilat
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
236.Organ Donation (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Yaacov Varhapatig
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
237.Is there a duty to sign a donor card? (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Reem Cohen
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
238.It's a big mitzvah to donate organs (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Shlomo Aviner
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
239.Law of living organ donation to save another
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Gideon Perel
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
240.The question of organ transplantation (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Eliezer Melamed
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
241.On The Transplantation Law (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Agudat Adi
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
242.Brain Death Law 2008 (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: The State of Israel
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
243.The Law of Organ Donation 2008 (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: The State of Israel
Publication: Binyan Ariel
Year: 2009
244.Should organ donors be paid?
Download: English
Author: Braverman Puma, Amy
Publication: U Chicago Magazine
Year: 2007
HOD Comment: The second article featured in this newsletter, "Should Organ Donors Be Paid?" allows members of the University of Chicago's faculty to weigh in on the debate for organ sales. Business professor, Gary Becker, believes that only the government has enough authority to establish a regulated system to buy and distribute organs. He estimates the cost to be $15,000 for a kidney and $35,000 for a liver, which should not add significantly to the cost of transplants. Law professor, Richard Epstein, believes the payments could change the doctor-patient relationship and attract a riskier group. Transplant surgeon, Dr. Thistlethwaite, opposes any system because it would be exploitative of the poor. Opinions are clearly divided, with Epstein claiming, "ethics demands the US try a market system" and Thistlethwaite countering that “the ethical justification for doing this to people doesn’t exist.” The final voice, Janet Rowley, a member of the President's Council on Bioethics, does not believe the system is likely to be developed soon unless “the list gets so big that it’s politically effective, or if someone who’s a big name dies” waiting for a transplant.
245.Brain Death: Can It Be Resuscitated?
Download: English
Author: Shewmon, D. Alan
Publication: Hastings Center Report
Year: 2009
HOD Comment: Full title: Brain Death: Can It Be Resuscitated? March/April 2009 Includes letters to the author from Hastings Center Report 39, no 5 (2009): 4-7, September-October 2009 entitled "And She's Not Only Merely Dead, She's Really Mostly Sincerely Dead"
246.Brain Death: Can It Be Resuscitated? Letters
Download: English
Author: Shewman, D. Alan
Publication: The Hastings Center Report
Year: 2009
Publisher: TheHastingsCenter.com
HOD Comment: Hastings Center Report 39, no 5 (2009): 4-7
247.Rav Moshe Shternbuch: “Should I Give My Sister A Kidney?”
Download: English
Author: Shternbuch, Rav Moshe
Publication: Revach l'Neshama
Year: 2010
248.Mortality and Causes of Death
Download: English
Author: United States Renal Data System
Publication: 2009 Annual Data Report
Year: 2009
Publisher: United States Renal Data System
249.Whaddaya Have To Do To Get A Kidney Around Here?
Download: English
Author: Kissling, Frances
Publication: Salon.com
Year: 2009
HOD Comment: Frances Kissling is a visiting scholar at the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. She is the former president of Catholics for a Free Choice.
250.Eulogy for Louis Washkansky
Download: English
Author: Unknown - Probably the Officiating Rabbi
Publication: ?
Year: 1968
251.The right to sell or buy a kidney: are we failing our patients?
Download: English
Author: Friedlaender, Michael M.
Publication: The Lancet
Year: 2002
HOD Comment: The Lancet, Vol 359, March 16, 2002
252.Jews and Organ Donations: All Take and No Give?
Download: English
Author: Berkowitz, Adena K.
Publication: Moment
Year: 1995
Publisher: Moment Magazine
HOD Comment: This article highlights the status of organ donation and its misconceptions amongst the Jewish population in the aftermath of the Alissa Flatow case. It provides an overview of Israel’s “all-take no give policy” as a member of the European organ donor network and Israel’s subsequent closeout from the network. Landmark decisions amongst various Jewish groups vis-à-vis organ donation in Israel and America are also outlined.
253.Markets for Kidney Transplants
Download: English
Author: Munro, Neil
Publication: National Journal
Year: 10/03/2009
Publisher: National Journal
254.The Case for Kidney Markets
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Author: Hippen, Dr. Benjamin
Publication: The New Atlantis
Year: 2006
255.Conceptual and Logical Proglems Arising from Defining Life and Death by the Presence or Absence of Circulation
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Author: Stadlan, Dr. Noam
Publication: Meorot, A Forum of Modern Orthodox Discourse
Year: 2010
256.A new law for allocation of donor organs in Israel
Download: English
Author: Lavee, Jacob; Ashkenazi, Tamar; Gurman, Gabriel; Steinberg, David
Publication: www.thelancet.com
Year: 2009
Publisher: Online
HOD Comment: Published online 12/17/2009. CORRESPONDENCE TO: Prof Jacob Lavee, Sheba Medical Centre, Heart Transplantation Unit, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan 52621, Israel. jaylavee@netvision.net.il. Heart Transplantation Unit, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Sheba Medical Centre, Tel Hashomer, Israel (Prof J Lavee MD); Israel NationalTransplant Centre, Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv, Israel (Prof J Lavee, T Ashkenazi MSc, Prof G Gurman MD); Section of Medical Ethics, Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA (Prof D Steinberg MD); and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA (Prof D Steinberg)
257.Organ Transplantation in China (in Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Lavee, Yaakov (Jay Lavee)
Publication: HaRefuah
Year: 2006
Publisher: HaRefuah
HOD Comment: Article in Hebrew (PDF)
258.Definition and determination of time of death according to Jewish law
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabinowitz, Rabbi Aharon and Koenigsberg, Dr. Mordecai
Publication: Hadarom
Year: 1971
Publisher: Volume 32
HOD Comment: Definition of Death and the determination of time of death according to Halacha.
259.Defaults and Donation Decisions
Download: English
Author: Johnson, Eric J. and Goldstein, Daniel G.
Publication: Transplantation
Year: 2004
HOD Comment: Transplantation, Volume 78, Number 12, December 27, 2004.
260.On brain death and respiratory Halacha
Download: Hebrew
Author: Carmel, Rav
Publication:
Year: Tishrei 2000
HOD Comment: úùøé úùñ
261.Neuropathology of brain death in the modern transplant era
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Author: Wijdicks, Eelco and Eric A. Pfeifer
Publication: Neurology
Year: 2008
HOD Comment: Online version of this article, along with updated information is located at www.neurology.org/content/70/15/1234/full.html
262.On Donating Articles
Download: English
Author: Schneerson, Rabbi Menachem M., The Lubavitcher Rebbe
Publication: TheRebbe.org
Year: 1969
263.The Search for Organs, Halachic perspectives on altruistic giving and the selling of organs
Download: English
Author: Kunin, J. D.
Publication: The Journal of Medical Ethics
Year: 2005
264.Rav Elyashiv's Position on Israeli Brain Death Law
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg, Rabbi Dr. Avraham
Publication: ASSIA
Year: 2010
Publisher: Schlessinger Institute
265.Rav Ovadiah Yosef on Brain Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg, Rabbi Dr. Avraham
Publication: ASSIA
Year: 2010
Publisher: Schlesinger Institute
266.Rabbi Bush Poses Questions to Chief Rabbinate of Israel
Download: Hebrew
Author:
Publication: ASSIA
Year: 2010
HOD Comment: It seems Rabbi Bush wrote his questions in English. This article includes most of this original questions in English and also translates them into Hebrew.
267.Irreversible Maternal Brain Injury during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Download: English
Author: Feldman, Deborah M, MD; Borgida, Adam F., MD; Rodts, John F., MD, & Campbell, Winston A., MD.
Publication: Obstetrical and Gynegological Survey, Vol 55, Number 11
Year: 2000
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc
HOD Comment: They don't document her being brain dead and actually don't claim she was. This is a good example of why even medical people have misconceptions about the entire topic.
268.The Heart, the Head, and the Halakhah
Download: English
Author: Rosenfeld, Rabbi Azriel, Ph.D., D.H.L
Publication: New York State Journal of Medicine, Vol 70, Issue 20
Year: 1970
HOD Comment: Article is from 1970, but already Rav Rosenfeld identified the brain as the seat of personal identity, and wrote that it didn't matter if the heart was still beating if the brain had been removed.
269.Brain Death and Heart Transplants
Download: English
Author: Cohen, Rabbi J. Simcha
Publication:
Year: 2011
270. Lifesaving Organ Transplantation from a Cadaver
Download: Hebrew
Author: Auerbach Rabbi S.Z , Abraham Prof. A.S
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
271.Murder of the Donor: Introduction to the Medical Discussion
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
272.Transplantation of Ovaries and Testicles
Download: Hebrew
Author: Catane, Dr. Chana; Raiskin, Shlomy
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 13
Year: 2010
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
273.Moribund Donors of Organs for Lifesaving
Download: Hebrew
Author: Dik Rabbi Yehuda
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
274.Anencephaly and Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Zilberstein, Rabbi Yitshak, Schussheim, Dr. E.Y.
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 13
Year: 2010
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
275.Premature Babies, Non-viable Babies, and Anencephalic Babies: Potential Organ Donors
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Dr. Mordechai
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 13
Year: 2010
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
276.Consent of the Deceased in Organ Transplantation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Yisraeli, Rabbi Shaul
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 9
Year: 2003
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
277.Transplantation of Brain Tissue
Download: Hebrew
Author: Raiskin Shlomy
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 13
Year: 2010
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
278.Murder of the Donor: Introduction to the Medical Discussion
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Dr. Mordechai
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
279.A Note on Legalizing the Compensation Procedure for Organ Donors
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Dr. Mordechai
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 9
Year: 2003
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
280.Compulsory Donation of Bone Marrow and Endangering Minors for Organ Transplantation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Bar-Ilan Rabbi Naftali
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 10
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
281.Organ Transplantation from Living Donors
Download: Hebrew
Author: Yisraeli, Rabbi Shaul
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 9
Year: 2003
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
282.Living Organ Donors and Trade in Organs
Download: Hebrew
Author: Wigoda Dr. Michael
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 10
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
283.The Decision of the Chief Rabbinate with Sources and Notes to the Decision
Download: Hebrew
Author: The Chief Rabbinate Council, The Transplantation Committee, Rabbi Mordechai Halperin
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
284.Heart Transplantation in Israel
Download: Hebrew
Author: The Chief Rabbinate Council
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
HOD Comment: Facsimile
285.Does Halacha Permit Heart Transplantation in Israel?
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Dr. Mordechai
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
286.Letter of the Secretariat of the Chief Rabbinate
Download: Hebrew
Author: The Secretariat of the Chief Rabbinate
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
287.The Medical Basis of Brain Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Sommer Prof. Haim
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
288.Establishing the Time of Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Lau Rabbi Yisrael Meir
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 10
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
289.Establishing the Moment of Death: Survey of Positions
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg Prof. Avraham
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 10
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
290.Response to the Editor’s Notes on the Moment of Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Avraham Prof. Avraham S.
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
291.The Signs of Death according to the Hatam Sofer
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
292.The Hacham Tsevi’s Opinion: Rabbinic Tradition or Scientific Determination?
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Dr. Mordechai
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
293.Is it Sufficient to Establish Cessation of Breathing
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Dr. Mordechai
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
294.Brain Death Legal Sources
Download: Hebrew
Author: State of New Jersey
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
295.Establishing the Moment of Death - Medical and Historical Background
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg Prof. Avraham
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
296.Establishing the Moment of Death - Halachic Background
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg Prof. Avraham
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
297.Responsa: Determination of Death
Download: English
Author: Feinstein, Rabbi Moshe
Publication: JME Book Vol. II
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
298.Rabbi Moshe Feinstein’s Opinion regarding Brain Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Dr. Mordechai
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
299.More regarding Rabbi Moshe Feinstein’s Opinion
Download: Hebrew
Author: Lewinstein, Dr. Israel; Tendler, Rabbi Moshe David
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
300.Responsum regarding Brain Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Auerbach, Rabbi Shlomo Z. ; Dr. Naftali Zeev Ringel, Dr. Rephael Zvi Shulman, Dr. Yaakov Schechter, Prof. Yaakov Fleischman
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 10
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
301.Brain Death in the Opinion of Rabbi Sh.Z. Auerbach
Download: Hebrew
Author: Ben Sasson, Rabbi David
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
302.Reconsidering Brain Death: A Lesson from Japan’s: Fifteen Years of Experience
Download: Hebrew
Author: Morioka Dr. Masahiro
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
303.Bibliographic and Halachic Notes: The Moment of Death and Heart Transplantation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg Prof. Avraham, Balfer Yisrael
Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death
Year: 2007
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
304.Tissue, Skin, Bone and Organ Harvesting at Israel's National Forensic Institute: Body Parts and Bio-Piracy
Download: English
Author: Scheper-Hughes, Nancy
Publication: CounterPunch Report
Year: 2010
305.Death by Neurological Criteria: A Critique of the RCA Paper and the Circulation Criteria
Download: English
Author: Stadlan, Dr. Noam
Publication: Hirhurim - Torah Musings
Year: 2010
HOD Comment: Note: 179 responses follow at the end of the article.
306.Halachic Issues in the Determination of Death and Organ Transplantation - A Halakhic Study
Download: English
Author: Bush, Rav Asher
Publication: Rabbinical Council of America
Year: 2010
307.Israel's Law on Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Israeli Government
Publication:
Year: 2008
HOD Comment: This is the actual law.
308.The Critical Role of Religion: Caring for the Dying Patient from an Orthodox Jewish Perspective
Download: English
Author: Loike, John, Ph.D., Gillick, Muriel, M.D et. al. (See comments)
Publication: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Year: 2010
HOD Comment: Multiple authors: John Loike, Ph.D.,1 Muriel Gillick, M.D.,2 Stephan Mayer, M.D.,3 Kenneth Prager, M.D.,4 Jeremy R. Simon, M.D., Ph.D.,5 Avraham Steinberg, M.D.,6 Moshe D. Tendler, Ph.D.,7 Mordechai Willig, M.S.,8 and Ruth L. Fischbach, Ph.D., M.P.E. The number after each name refers to a footnote on the bottom of the first page of the article describing the person's affiliation.
309.Umbilical Blood Basis of the Halachic Discussion
Download: Hebrew
Author: Halperin Rabbi Mordechai
Publication: assia
Year: 2008
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
310.Infusing Umbilical Blood
Download: Hebrew
Author: Schlesinger Dr. Menachem
Publication: ASSIA
Year: 2008
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
311.Introduction to Organ Transplantation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rosner, Dr. Fred
Publication: Proceedings of the First International Colloquium
Year: 1996
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
312.Establishing the Moment of Death and Organ Transplantation Physiological “Decapitation”
Download: Hebrew
Author: Tendler Rabbi Moshe David
Publication: Emek Halacha
Year: 1989
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
313.Treating the Moribund Patient and Establishing Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Avraham Prof. Avraham Sofer
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 3
Year: 1982
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
314.Establishing the Moment of Death Historical, Philosophical and Medical Aspects
Download: Hebrew
Author: Steinberg Prof. Avraham
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 3
Year: 1982
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
315.Establishing the Moment of Death and Organ Transplantation a Symposium
Download: Hebrew
Author: Davidson T. , Kan Marco , Rabinowitz B., Margalit D.
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 1
Year: 1979
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
316.The Family’s Position in Blocking Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rappaport Rabbi Sh. A.
Publication: Emek Halacha
Year: 1989
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
317.Abstracts
Download: Hebrew
Author:
Publication: ASSIA – Volume 1
Year: 1979
Publisher: The Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute fo Medical-Halachic Research at the Sha’are Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem
HOD Comment: Regarding Heart Transplantation from the Halachic Point of View A. Y. Unterman The Problem of Heart Transplantation Menachem Kasher Kidney Replacement and Halacha Y. Levi Cornea Transplantation from Deceased Donors Moshe Steinberg
318.Rabbi (Sacks) Says Brain Stem Death Is Not Enough For Organ Donation
Download: English
Author: Wise, Jacqui
Publication: BMJ
Year: 2011
HOD Comment: Article is in English
319.Brain stem death: managing care when accepted medical
Download: English
Author: Inwald, David; Jakobovits, Immanuel; Petros, Andy
Publication: BMJ Volume 320
Year: 2000
320.The Controversy Concerning Early Burial
Download: English
Author: Kottek, Samuel S. M.D.
Publication: ASSIA – Jewish Medical Ethics
Year: 1988
321.Rethinking the Brain Death Controversy
Download: English
Author: Eytan Shtull-Leber
Publication:
Year: April 26, 2010
322.The Eighth-Month Fetus: Classical Sources for a Modern Superstition
Download: English
Author: Reiss, Rosemary E, MD, and Ash, Avner D., PhD
Publication: Obstetrics and Gynecology, used with permission by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecolgists
Year: 1988
HOD Comment: Note letters at end of article (P. 286-287) by Dr. Charles R. King and response by Dr. Reiss.
323.The Use of Executed Prisoners as a Source of Organ Transplants in China Must Stop
Download: English
Author: Danovitcha, G.M. *, Shapirob, M. E. and Laveec, J.
Publication: American Journal of Transplantation
Year: 2011
Publisher: Wiley Periodicals Inc.
HOD Comment: Strategies to influence positive change in organ donation practice in China by the international transplant community are discussed. They include an absolutist policy whereby no clinical data from China is deemed acceptable until unacceptable donation practices end, and an incremental policy whereby clinical data is carefully evaluated for acceptability. The relative advantages and drawbacks of these strategies are discussed together with some practical suggestions for response available to individuals and the transplant community.
324.Second brain death examination may negatively affect organ donation
Download: English
Author: Lustbader, D. MD; O'Hara, D. MS, et. al.
Publication: Neurology
Year: 2010
Publisher: AAN Enterprises, Inc.
HOD Comment: Authors: D. Lustbader, MD, D. O'Hara, MS, E.F.M. Wijdicks, MD, PhD, L. MacLean, PhD, W. Tajik, A. Ying, MS, E. Berg and M. Goldstein, MD
325.Movement After Brain Death
Download: English
Author: Unknown
Publication: JAMA
Year: 2000
HOD Comment: JAMA, Vol 283, No.6, February 9, 2000
326.Refrigeration, Resuscitation, and the Resurection
Download: English
Author: Rosenfeld, Rabbi Azriel
Publication: Tradition - A Journal of Orthodox Thought
Year:
327.Religion and the Robot
Download: English
Author: Rosenfeld, Rabbi Azriel
Publication: Tradition - A Journal of Orthodox Thought
Year:
328.Meziza BePeh - Therapeutic Touch or Hippocratic Vestige
Download: English
Author: Sprecher, Dr. Shlomo
Publication: Hakira, the Flatbush Journal of Jewish Law and Thought
Year:
329.Ovum Donations: A Rabbinic Conceptual Model of Maternity
Download: English
Author: Bick, Rabbi Ezra
Publication: Tradition
Year:
330.Hebrew Article on Determination of Time of Death
Download: Hebrew
Author: Oren, Yechiel Mordechai
Publication: Avoda BeGemara v-Halacha
Year:
HOD Comment: Hebrew title: Hagdarat Rega Ha-Mavet
331.Hebrew Article - Arguments Against Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Unknown
Publication: Unknown
Year:
HOD Comment: Title: T-aynot Neged Hashtalat Ayvarim
332.The Challenges Facing British Jewry
Download: English
Author: Wagner, Prof. Leslie
Publication: Unknown
Year: 2011
333.Brain Death - The Patient, the Physician and Society
Download: English
Author: Byrne, Dr. Paul, et. al. (Listed in Notes)
Publication: Unknown
Year:
HOD Comment: * Paul A. Byrne, M.D., Neonatologist, St. Charles Hospital, Oregon, Ohio; Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio. ** Sean O'Reilly, M.D., F.R.C.P. [deceased]. Professor of Neurology, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. *** Paul M. Quay. S.J. Ph.D. [deceased]. Research Professor of Philosophy, Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois. **** Peter W. Salsich, Jr., J.D., Professor of Law, Saint Louis University School of Law, St. Louis, Missouri.
334.Daat Torah
Download: English
Author: Cohen, Rabbi Alfred
Publication: Unknown
Year:
335.Clinical Report--Guidelines for the Determination of Brain Death in Infants and Children: An Update of the 1987 Task Force Recommendations
Download: English
Author: Thomas A. Nakagawa, Stephen Ashwal, Mudit Mathur, Mohan Mysore
Publication: Pediatrics
Year: 2011
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
HOD Comment: Pediatrics; originally published online August 28, 2011; THE SOCIETY OF CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, SECTION ON CRITICAL CARE AND SECTION ON NEUROLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS and THE CHILD NEUROLOGY SOCIETY.
336.The Question of the Kidneys Counsel
Download: English
Author: Slifkin, Rabbi Natan
Publication: RationalistJudaism.com
Year: 2010
337.Bioethics of the Refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses
Download: English
Author: Muramoto, Osamu
Publication: Journal of Medical Ethics
Year: 1998
HOD Comment: Note correction on last page of article.
338.Organ Donation
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rabbi Moshe Edelmann
Publication: Vows in Halachic Literature & Responsa
Year: 5766
Publisher: Self-Published
339."Lamut Kehalacha" - To die according to Halacha
Download: Hebrew
Author: Vered Kelner
Publication: Globe
Year: 2012
340.Really Dead, The Israeli Brain-Death Controversy, 1967-1986
Download: English
Author: Naftali Moses
Publication: Really Dead (Book)
Year: 2011
341.Brain Death in Children (Editorial)
Download: English
Author: Wijdicks, Eelco F. M., MD, PhD; Smith, Wade S, MD, PhD
Publication: American Neurological Association
Year: 2012
342.Teshuvah of R. Yosef Meshash regarding cornea transplants
Download: English
Author: Meshash, R. Yosef
Publication: Mayyim Kedoshim
Year:
343.Guidelines for the Determination of Brain Death in Infants and Children: An Update of the 1987 Task Force Recommendations
Download: English
Author: Nakagawa, Thomas A; Ashwal, Stephen; Mathur, Mudit; Mohan Mysore, Mohan; et. al.
Publication: Pediatrics
Year: 2011
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
344.Brain-stem Death and Transplantation of Heart and Liver
Download: Hebrew
Author: Rav Shlomo Moshe Amar
Publication: Techumin
Year: 2011
HOD Comment: Hebrew year - 5773 Volume 31
345.Long Survival Following Bacterial Meningitis-Associated Brain Destruction
Download: English
Author: Repertinger, MD, Susan; William P. Fitzgibbons, MD; Mathew F. Omojola, MB, FRCPC; Roger A. Brumback, MD
Publication: Journal of Child Neurology
Year: 2006
346.Return of Spontaneous Respiration in an Infant Who Fulfilled Current Criteria to Determine Brain Death
Download: English
Author: Okamoto, MD, Ken; Tsuyoshi Sugimoto, MD
Publication: Pediatrics
Year: 1995
347.Validity of Brain Death Criteria in Infants
Download: English
Author: Fishman, MD. Marvin A.,
Publication: Pediatrics
Year: 1995
348.Organ Donation and Priority Points in Israel: An Ethical Analysis
Download: English
Author: Quigley, Muireann; Wright, Linda; and Ravitsky
Publication: Transplantation; 93: 970-973
Year: 2012
349.Various Halachic Sources
Download: Hebrew
Author: Unknown
Publication:
Year:
Publisher: -
HOD Comment: This article contains a lot of quotes from the Zitz Eliezer, Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg
350.Preliminary Marked Increase in the National Organ Donation Rate in Israel Following Implementation of a New Organ Transplantation Law
Download: English
Author: Lavee, J.; Ashkenazi, T.; Stoler, A.; Cohen, J.; and Beyar, R.
Publication: American Journal of Transplantation
Year: 2013
351.NEUROLOGICAL DETERMINATION OF DEATH
Download: English
Author: Ontario Trillium Gift of Life Network
Publication:
Year: 2006
HOD Comment: This document outlines the Candadian Transplantation's medical requirements to determine brain-stem death.
352.Compensated Living Kidney Donation: A Plea for Pragmatism
Download: English
Author: Omar, Faisal; Tufveson, Gunnar; and Welin, Stellan
Publication: Health Care Anal
Year: 2009
353.Need For Transplant Organs Is Acute Among Blacks
Download: English
Author: Kelley, Tina
Publication: New York Times
Year: 2006
354.Brain Death Is Not The Final Word
Download: English
Author: Zacharowicz, MD, Leon
Publication:
Year: 2006
HOD Comment: Response to "Organ Donation: Gift or Halachic Obligation?"
355.Organ Donation: Gift or Halachic Obligation?
Download: English
Author: Eisenberg, Malka
Publication: The Jewish Star
Year: 2006
356.Pakistan's Kidney Bazaar
Download: English
Author: Jan, Sadaqat
Publication: The Philadelphia Inquirer
Year: 2006
357.Hooked Up and Waiting For My Angel
Download: English
Author: By A Jew In Need
Publication: The Jewish Press
Year: 2006
358.The Transplant Connection (Hebrew)
Download: Hebrew
Author: Sarit Rosenblum
Publication: Journal Jediot Achronot
Year: 2013
359.Donating in good faith or getting into trouble? Religion and organ donation revisited
Download: English
Author: Oliver, Mike; Ahmed, Aimun; Woywodt, Alexander
Publication: World Journal of Transplantation
Year: 2012
HOD Comment: Note highlighted sections.
360.Life Insurance in the United States
Download: English
Author: Unknown
Publication: Hunts Merchants Magazine
Year: 1843
361.Determining Death and Heart Transplant
Download: Hebrew
Author: David, Rabbi Shmuel
Publication:
Year: